I’m a dentist and there’s no need to become a professional photographer.
The first step of aesthetic treatment is the acquisition of data. This consists of careful analysis of the clinical case accompanied by essential photographic records of the patient.
My setup recommended over here 👇🏻 is Nikon D7200 camera body equipped with a 105-mm macro-lens and R1C1 twins flash system.
Let’s share your options and make it more informative.

Basic knowledge of digital photography in dentistry, focusing on the information that can help us obtain the best results limited to the photographic area that interests us, is that what we all need without entering the realm of complex technicalities. It is of fundamental importance to master the basic elements of photographic equipment: Camera, lens and flash ( or luminous sources ).
Nikon camera body with its accessories is one of the most adequate equipment to do so.
Here I will recommend my option that I use in my practice giving me the best results. It’s Nikon D7200 equipped with a 105-mm macro-lens and two directed lateral flashes.

Among the multitude of functions within the camera body, the most important ones for dental applications include ISO, f-stop or aperture, exposure time and white balance. 

Note that the first three determine EXPOSURE, Exposure refers to the amount of light that enters the camera lens and reaches the sensor; the more light that reaches the sensor, the more luminous the resulting photo will be and vice versa. Correct regulation of the exposure levels ensures the avoidance of dark (underexposed) or light (overexposed) images. On this basis, it’s crucial that one must always find a correct balance of exposure.

ISO  
It controls the sensitivity of the sensor; the lower the ISO, the less sensitive the sensor. With insufficient brightness, a higher ISO setting will be required to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. However, there is a disadvantage of a high ISO figure: a high value implies the presence of “digital noise“ lending a granular aspect to images and causing loss of details “ graininess “. Recommended ISO value is 200 for intraoral and small extraoral images; ISO 400 is recommended for larger extraoral such as full-face photos.

F-stop & photographic field depth 
The smaller the value of the aperture ( f-stop ), the wider the diameter which means more light will be able to filter through and reach the sensor and vice versa. A very wide aperture lens is able to produce high-quality photos even in conditions of insufficient lighting; however, controlling the f-stop does not only calibrate correct amounts of light reaching the sensor, it also determines the depth of the photographic field. In order to increase the depth of a field, one must reduce the aperture ( increase the f-stop value ). The inferior amount of light filtering through could be compensated by more powerful light emission or through the longer exposure time.

Exposure time
Exposure time or shutter speed is the time interval when the digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light. The faster the shutter speed, the less light enters the camera and vice versa. This is normally calculated in fractions of a second: 1/30, 1/60, 1/125 and so on.

White balance
It is the parameter that determines the temperature of the image. In simple terms white balance is the process by which all colors appear in the image exactly how the eye perceives them. The preferable option for dental purposes is the natural temperature for daily light: 5,500 k.

Finally, It is recommended that the photo is always acquired when the operating lamp is removed from the subject of the photograph.

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Regards.